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Biological sex

Sex-based rights for females are crucial to protect, especially in regards to incarcerated girls & women. 


INIGW recognises:


- biological sex in humans is immutable and binary,

- human biological sex is a universally accepted fact and a law of nature,

- “gender” is a set of social and cultural expectations and stereotypes befallen onto females and males, and are based on biological sex,

- females are collectively oppressed due, in part, to these stereotypes (aka “gender”),

- the oppression of girls and women is based on their biological sex,

- in spite of international standards calling for an end to all sex-based discrimination and to all sex-based stereotypes, girls and women are still discriminated against based on their sex, 

- pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding and motherhood are exclusively female statuses and capabilities, and

- biological sex is the primary indicator used to separate humans per discriminatory beliefs, structures and systems.

Biological sex and the sex-based rights of incarcerated girls and women, including provisions thereof, should always be treated with paramountcy in any given situation; above race, religion, sexual orientation and other protected categories.

Sex-segregation is an imperative safety measure and form of harm prevention that must exist within female penal facilities.


Prisons should be single-sex facilities, not unisex. Where this is not possible, prisons should aim to ensure there are no mixed-sex cells, units, wings or mixed-sex auxiliary facilities.



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